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J Occup Health year 2000 volume 42 number 4 page 179 - 184
Classification Originals
Title Comparative Pulmonary Responses Caused by Exposure to Standard Cobalt and Ultrafine Cobalt
Author Qunwei ZHANG1*, Yukinori KUSAKA1 and Kenneth DONALDSON2
Organization 1Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University,
2Department of Biological Sciences, Napier University, Edinburgh, UK
Keywords Ultrafine cobalt, Standard cobalt, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Lung toxicity
Correspondence Y. Kusaka, Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka-Cho, Fukui 910-1193, Japan
*Present address: Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Centre, 550 First Avenue, NY 10016, USA
Abstract Comparative Pulmonary Responses Caused by Exposure to Standard Cobalt and Ultrafine Cobalt: Qunwei ZHANG, et al. Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University-The aim of this study was to compare the pulmonary toxicity after exposure to standard cobalt (Std-Co) and ultrafine cobalt (Uf-Co). Rats were intratracheally instilled with 1 mg of Std-Co and Uf-Co, and wet lung weight and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) profiles were analysed 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 d later. The effects of Std-Co and Uf-Co on indices that can be presumed to reflect epithelial injury and permeability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein (TP)), and release of proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)) were increased throughout the 30 d post-exposure period. The results showed that the effects of Std-Co and Uf-Co on these indices were significantly higher than those of control. The results also showed that the effects of Uf-Co on indices were significantly higher than those of Std-Co from 1 to 15 d after instillation. Moreover, the number of neutrophils and LDH activity in BALF in rats after exposure to Uf-Co were significantly greater than those of Std-Co-exposed rats up to 30 d after instillation. Our findings suggest that Uf-Co has a much more toxic effect on the lungs than Std-Co, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated.
(J Occup Health 2000; 42: 179-184)