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J Occup Health year 2003 volume 45 number 3 page 140 - 145
Classification Original
Title Assessment of Urinary Cotinine as a Marker of Nicotine Absorption from Tobacco Leaves: A Study on Tobacco Farmers in Malaysia
Author Mayumi ONUKI1, Kazuhito YOKOYAMA1, 2, Kaoru KIMURA1, Hajime SATO1, Rusli Bin NORDIN3, Lin NAING3, Yoko MORITA4, Tadashi SAKAI4, Yasuki KOBAYASHI1 and Shunichi ARAKI5
Organization 1Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo,
2Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Mie University, Japan,
3Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia,
4Occupational Poisoning Center, Tokyo Rosai Hospital and 5National Institute of Industrial Health, Japan
Keywords Green Tobacco Sickness, Biological monitoring, Urinary cotinine
Correspondence K. Yokoyama, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Mie University, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu-shi, Mie 514-8507, Japan
Abstract Assessment of Urinary Cotinine as a Marker of Nicotine Absorption from Tobacco Leaves: A Study on Tobacco Farmers in Malaysia: Mayumi ONUKI, et al. Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo-To assess dermal absorption of nicotine from tobacco leaves in relation to Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS), urinary cotinine concentrations were measured in 80 male tobacco-growing farmers and in 40 healthy males (controls) who did not handle wet tobacco leaves in Kelantan, Malaysia. Among non-smokers, urinary cotinine levels in farmers were significantly higher than those of controls; farmers with urinary cotinine of 50 ng/ml/m2 or above showed eye symptoms more frequently than those below this level (p<0.05). Farmers who did not wear protective equipment had subjective symptoms more frequently than those who used the equipment (p<0.05); some of these symptoms were seen more frequently in organophosphate (Tamaron) users than in non-users. As tobacco farmers evidence a risk of nicotine poisoning from tobacco leaves, assessment including GTS together with effects of pesticides will be necessary.