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J Occup Health year 2004 volume 46 number 6 page 429 - 439
Classification Original
Title Carcinogenicity and Chronic Toxicity after Inhalation Exposure of Rats and Mice to N,N-Dimethylformamide
Author Hideki SENOH, Shigetoshi AISO, Heihachiro ARITO, Tomoshi NISHIZAWA, Kasuke NAGANO, Seigo YAMAMOTO and Taijiro MATSUSHIMA
Organization Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan
Keywords Dimethylformamide, DMF, Inhalation, Carcinogen, Rat, Mouse, Liver, Tumor, Hepatoblastoma
Correspondence H. Senoh, Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015, Japan (e-mail: h-seno@jisha.or.jp)
Abstract Carcinogenicity and Chronic Toxicity after Inhalation Exposure of Rats and Mice to N,N-Dimethylformamide: Hideki SENOH, et al. Japan Bioassay Research Center-Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) were examined by inhalation exposure of groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of both sexes to DMF vapor at a concentration of 0, 200, 400 or 800 ppm (v/v) for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 104 wk. In rats, incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas significantly increased in the 400 and 800 ppm-exposed groups and in the 800 ppm-exposed group, respectively. The hepatocellular adenoma did not increase significantly in the 400 ppm-exposed female rats, but its incidence exceeded a range of historical control data in the Japan Bioassay Research Center (JBRC). In mice, incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas significantly increased in all the DMF-exposed groups. Incidence of hepatoblastomas significantly increased in the 200 and 400 ppm-exposed male mice, and 4 cases of hepatoblastomas in the 400 ppm-exposed female mice and the 800 ppm-exposed male mice exceeded the range of historical control data of the JBRC. Incidences of altered cell foci increased in the liver of exposed rats and mice in an exposure concentration-related manner, and those foci were causally related to the hepatocellular tumors. Liver weights increased in both rats and mice exposed to DMF at 200 ppm and above. Increased levels of gamma-GTP, ALT, AST and total bilirubin in exposed rats of both sexes and AST and ALT in exposed mice of both sexes were noted. It was concluded that 2-yr inhalation exposure to DMF increased incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in rats and incidences of hepatocellular adenomas, carcinomas and hepatoblastomas in mice, and that hepatocarcinogenicity of DMF was more potent in mice than in rats.