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J Occup Health year 2004 volume 46 number 6 page 440 - 447
Classification Original
Title Urinary Mutagenicity, CYP1A2 and NAT2 Activity in Textile Industry Workers
Author Ana FANLO1, Blanca SINUES1, Esteban MAYAYO1, Luisa BERNAL1, Antonia SORIANO1,
Organization 1Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and 2Department of Occupational Health, University of Zaragoza, Spain
Keywords NAT2, CYP1A2, Textile workers, Urine mutagenicity
Correspondence Sinues, Department of Pharmacology, Medicine School, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain (e-mail:
Abstract Urinary Mutagenicity, CYP1A2 and NAT2 Activity in Textile Industry Workers: Ana FANLO, et al. Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Zaragoza, Spain-The two major causes of bladder cancer have been recognised to be cigarette smoke and occupational exposure to arylamines. These compounds are present both in tobacco smoke and in the dyes used in textile production. Aromatic amines suffer oxidative metabolism via P450 cytochrome CYP1A2, and detoxification by the polymorphic NAT2. The aim of the present work was to assess the association between occupational-derived exposure to mutagens and CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity. This cross-sectional study included 117 textile workers exposed to dyes and 117 healthy controls. The urinary mutagenicity was determined in 24 h urine using TA98 Salmonella typhimurium strain with microsomal activation S9 (MIS9) or incubation with beta-glucuronidase (MIbeta). Urinary caffeine metabolite ratios: AFMU+1X+1U/17U, and AFMU/AFMU+1X+1U were calculated to assess CYP1A2 and NAT2 activities, respectively. The results show that workers present a strikingly higher urine mutagenicity than controls (p<0.0001), despite the implementation of the new restrictive norms forbidding the industrial use of the most carcinogenic arylamines. Neither NAT2 nor CYP1A2 activity had any effect on the markers of internal exposure to mutagens, since no significant differences were observed when the urinary mutagenicity of slow and fast acetylators (p>0.05) was compared, and the urinary mutagenicity was not significantly associated with the CYP1A2 activity marker (r=0.04 and r=-0.01 for MIS9 and MIbeta, respectively). This study clearly indicates the need for further protective policies to minimise exposure to the lowest feasible limit in order to avoid unnecessary risks.