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J Occup Health year 2006 volume 48 number 3 page 183 - 191
Classification Original
Title Work and Family Life of Childrearing Women Workers in Japan: Comparison of Non-Regular Employees with Short Working Hours, Non-Regular Employees with Long Working Hours, and Regular Employees
Author Masako SETO1, 3, Kanehisa MORIMOTO1 and Soichiro MARUYAMA2
Organization 1Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Human Sciences, Faculty of Literature, Kobe Shinwa Women's University and 3Akebonokai Medical Corporation, Akebono GM Clinic, Japan
Keywords Women worker, Mother, Non-regular employee, Regular employee, Working life, Family life, Childrearing
Correspondence K. Morimoto, Department of Social and Environmental Medicine F1, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
(e-mail: morimoto@envi.med.osaka-u.ac.jp)
Abstract Work and Family Life of Childrearing Women Workers in Japan: Comparison of Non-Regular Employees with Short Working Hours, Non-Regular Employees with Long Working Hours, and Regular Employees: Masako SETO, et al. Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine-This study assessed the working and family life characteristics, and the degree of domestic and work strain of female workers with different employment statuses and weekly working hours who are rearing children. Participants were the mothers of preschoolers in a large Japanese city. We classified the women into three groups according to the hours they worked and their employment conditions. The three groups were: non-regular employees working less than 30 h a week (n=136); non-regular employees working 30 h or more per week (n=141); and regular employees working 30 h or more a week (n=184). We compared among the groups the subjective values of work, financial difficulties, childcare and housework burdens, psychological effects, and strains such as work and family strain, work-family conflict, and work dissatisfaction. Regular employees were more likely to report job pressures and inflexible work schedules and to experience more strain related to work and family than non-regular employees. Non-regular employees were more likely to be facing financial difficulties. In particular, non-regular employees working longer hours tended to encounter socioeconomic difficulties and often lacked support from family and friends. Female workers with children may have different social backgrounds and different stressors according to their working hours and work status.