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J Occup Health year 2008 volume 50 number 1 page 92 - 98
Classification Field Study  
Title Occupational Stress and Mental Health among Correctional Officers: A Cross-Sectional Study
Author Ali GHADDAR1, 2, Inmaculada MATEO1 and Pablo SANCHEZ1
Organization 1Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica and 2Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, Spain
Keywords Mental health, Occupational stress, Psychosocial work conditions, Penitentiary center, Correctional officers
Correspondence J. Yoshida, Department of Environmental Health, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, 1-3-69, Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan (e-mail:
Abstract Actual Conditions of the Mixing of Antineoplastic Drugs for Injection in Hospitals in Osaka Prefecture, Japan: Jin YOSHIDA, et al. Department of Environmental Health, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health-We conducted a questionnaire survey in order to grasp the actual conditions under which antineoplastic drugs are mixed for injection in hospitals. Questionnaires were sent to all 155 hospitals with 100 or more beds for general patients in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The response rate was 69.0%. Mixing of antineoplastic drugs was done in 81.3% of the hospitals. The questionnaire was answered by doctors in 17.2% of the hospitals with antineoplastic drugs, nurses in 11.5%, and pharmacists in 70.1%. Mixing of antineoplastic drugs was done by doctors in 58.6% of the hospitals, nurses in 44.8%, and pharmacists in 63.2% (multiple answers). Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs was recognized in 97.7% of the hospitals. The mean frequency of the mixing operation was 8.8 d per month per worker. The mean number of antineoplastic drugs handled was 7.4 types. Guidelines for the safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were used in 52.8% of the hospitals and a biological safety cabinet was available in 57.4%. Gloves, mask, gown and goggles were used in 82.7, 69.0, 62.1 and 36.8% of the hospitals, respectively, but no personal protective equipment was used in 10.1%. The safety precautions of the hospitals in which the number of beds was small tended to be fewer than those of the hospitals in which the number of beds was large. Used vials and ampoules were disposed of as clinical, infectious or exclusive antineoplastic drug waste by 74.7% of the hospitals. Safety measures for handling the excrement of patients treated with antineoplastic drugs were performed in 8.0% of the hospitals. In 43.7% of the hospitals, the Field Study responders had experienced accidents during antineoplastic drug preparation, such as drugs adhering to hands or eyes, drug leakage, accidental injection and cutting by ampoules. Because of the adverse effects of antineoplastic drugs, all hospitals in which the healthcare workers handle them should promote safety precautions.